Vahid Ahadnejad 1, 2
- Department of Geology, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 13395-3697, Tehran, Iran
- Shahid Beheshti University, Gemology Center
This Symposium that so-called GEMKISH 2018, was the first event about the gem trading in Iran which held from 19-22 November, 2018 in the Kish Island, Persian Gulf, Iran. Iran has a long and brilliant history about gem identification and lapidary, and jewelry designing as its antique products are often the best in the museums and private collections. The National Jewelry Museum of Iran, which is known as a richest museum in the World is the best evidence to proof that this art-industry is rooted in Iranian history. Unfortunately, today the Jewelry Industry has not good conditions In Iran due to many reasons. Among them, the isolation of Iranian craftsmen and goldsmiths has the most effect. The import of foreign gold products is forbidden, which has left a lack of dynamism and competitiveness from domestic markets. Designing and technology are two major weaknesses of the industry in Iran. Iranian designs are rarely seen in the market, and most of products are copied. In order to implement modern economic policies and increase exports and reliance on oil revenues, it is essential to support different industries and reduce unnecessary bureaucracies.
Beside these theoretical issues, the GEMKISH 2018 that was held simultaneously with the Fourth Gems and Jewelry exhibition tries to foster the compromises of professional approaches of gem trading for Iranian young jewelers. Our excellent Iranian and international speakers demonstrate state-of-art about the main Gems; Natural Fancy Color Diamonds, Synthetic Diamonds, Emerald, Piroozeh (Turquoise) and Agate. During the symposium had opportunity to participate in the practical workshop for Treated and Synthetic. One of speakers, which can help dealers to understand Piroozeh qualities, introduced the new classification on Iranian Piroozeh. In order to unification of trading name for Persian Turquoise, we discussed and concluded that Piroozeh, which is an old and original name, is the best name for this gem.
Keywords: Gemkish, Kish Island, Iran, Gem Trading, Iran
Gemstones in the Middle East
Mansour Ghorbani 1, Elahe Namnabat 2
1 Associate Professor, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshi University, Tehran, Iran
2Ph.D student, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshi University, Tehran, Iran
According the number of gem indexes, the top five gemstone-bearing countries are Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, Turkey and Tajikistan, respectively. Afghanistan is considered to be the most important gemstone-bearing country in the Middle East. Different kinds of gemstones including emerald, ruby and sapphires, lapis lazuli, tourmaline, aquamarine, kunzite and topaz have occurred in Afghanistan. Using and mining of gemstones have been considered by Iranians since ancient times. National jewelry museum (Tehran, Iran) is the best example for cultural and historical connection of gemstones with Iran. Turquoise is most probably the oldest of all gems that is mined with a history stretching back to 7000 years ago. Colored gemstones such as emerald, ruby, sapphire, topaz, aquamarine, and tourmaline are found in Pakistan making the country significant in the mineral world. Zultanite, one of the most rare gemstones in the Diaspore family, only found in one place in the world, Anatolian Mountains, south west of Turkey. The best samples of Kämmererite (chromian clinochlore) can be found in Turkey. Ruby and spinel can be found in the Muzkol metamorphic complex in east of Tajikistan. In addition, topaz, amethyst, tourmaline, amazonite, scapolite are found next to Kukurt Lake near Murghab area, Tajikistan.
Keywords: Gemstones, Middle East, Gemstones.
Persian Aqeeq, Terminology & Mineralogy
Fariborz Masoudi and Bahman Rahimzadeh
Shahid Beheshti University, Gemology Center
Many Aqeeq deposits are present in Iran. It is written also “akik or aqiq” and in many literatures, it is identical to agate. However, aqeeq deposits of Iran are varies in color, brightness, patterns and many other gemological features. To improve its trade, scientific identifications need to reveal the differences. Scientific and trade terminology also should be define for different types. Petrography, gemology, Raman analyses, SEM, ICP and XRF studies of samples from east of Qazvin, north of Qom and Torbate Heidarieh reveal that aqeeq deposits in Iran are not simply like agate made of chalcedony. Many different silica phases include chalcedony, quartz, opal and moganite identified.
In gemological terminology, it is suggested and offer ” aqeeq” in the uniform way of writing the term and only should use it for rocks mainly made of silica phases of chalcedony and moganite equal to agate. However, for parts mainly made of opal, the term of aqeeq is not correct and the term of opal as rock should be used. When sequence of opal and aqeeq are present, opal-aqeeq could be used. Most of the silica deposits in Iran need treatment. The first step is to study mineralogy of each deposit to characterize the best treatment method.
Keywords: Aqeeq, Opal, Silica phases.
A brief review on agates with special view on Iranian agates
Geology department of Payam Noor University, Iran
The agate’s name was given by Theophrastus who discovered that along the shore line of Achate River in Sicily, Italy. This gemstones occur with acidic volcanism and rhyolite, ignimbrites, rhyodacite and trachytic rocks. There are many structures in the agates for example, stellar, geode, fibrous, ring, cauliflower and etc. The most important texture in the agates are laminar, fluidal, spherolitic and fibrous. There are more than 30 color in agates such as blue, green, brown, red, black, smoky, orange and etc. The most important countries for agates mine are Turkey, Brazil, Germany, Mexico, Iran, and Madagascar. In Iran the agates can be seen in Qom, Miyaneh, Ardebil, Khalkhal, Khorasan, Semnan, Zanjan, Birjand and Esfahan.
There are five localities of agates in the east of Miyaneh with blue, yellow, black, brown, red and smoky color. The most important agent for blue color in Miyaneh agates is copper and for brown and red color is iron cations. The best temperature for thermal treating of Miyaneh agates is 600 °C. The characteristics of fluid inclusions in Miyaneh and Khalkhal agates revealed that the homogenization temperature is low than 150 and the salinity of fluid is low than 8 % weight equal NaCl and the circulation of silisiferous fluids have very important role in forming of agates so we can classified the Iranian agates on the basis of fluid inclusion characteristics. It is very strange that we can see Eocene fossils such as nummulites in Khalkhal agates.
Keywords: Agate, Silisiferous, Iran.
The Magical World of Diamonds
(Diamond consultant and author of best-selling guide ‘Diamonds’ at Noble Gems International, London, United Kingdom)
Diamonds are the most prized and highly valued of gemstones. Throughout history they have been admired by royalty and worn as a symbol of strength, courage and invincibility. Over the centuries the diamond acquired unique status as the ultimate gift of love, in myth and reality. It is the hardest known substance yet has the simplest chemical composition, consisting of crystallized carbon, the chemical element that is fundamental to all life. Diamonds come in many colors and their optical properties are stunning. They disperse light into the colors of the rainbow, and sparkle far more than any other gemstone. First mined in India over 4000 years ago, diamonds were used to decorate religious objects, serve as a talisman against evil and a protector in battle. Buddhists also recognized the deep symbolic significance accorded to diamonds in ancient Buddhist scriptures, including the ‘Diamond Sutra’ which states that truth is eternal, just like the diamond. Diamonds are also found in the culture and mysticism of Hinduism, Jainism and Tibetan Lamaism. The Sanskrit word ‘vajra’ – meaning both thunderbolt and diamond – was the name for a small metal weapon having the symbolic nature both of a diamond (able to cut any substance but not be cut itself) and of the thunderbolt (irrepressible force). The Buddhist equivalent, ‘dorje’, was a talisman in the shape of a four-faceted diamond which represented the sacred Mount Meru, believed to be at the center of the universe. The highly valued Tibetan diamond dzi bead represents the dorje/vajra symbol and bestows diamond-like qualities on its wearer: it can help bring to light the many beautiful or dormant facets within the self, and its brilliance shines on the wearer to illuminate beauty and repel all that is ugly.
In ancient times India was the world’s only source of diamonds until the beginning of the 18th century, except for minor deposits found in Kalimantan, Borneo. Most were mined from alluvial deposits along riverbanks. Today the most prized historical diamonds are still known as the ‘diamonds of Golconda,’ a region located between the lower reaches of the Godavari and Krishna rivers. Golconda diamonds are believed to be the finest and purest of any gemstones. They have a perfect internal crystal structure, exceptional transparency and are without any trace of color.
It is believed that Alexander the Great brought the first diamonds to Europe from India in 327 BC, instigating the expansion of trade routes between Europe and the East. Ancient Greeks elieved diamonds to be ‘tears of the gods’ and splinters of falling stars. The word ‘diamond’ is derived from the Greek word ‘adamas’, meaning invincible, indestructible, and later translated into Latin as ‘diamas’. During the Greco-Roman era, diamonds became a valuable commodity in trade and gradually became a symbol of luxury. Romans were also known to use diamond fragments set in iron as tools which were traded with China and used for carving jade or drilling pearls.
Keywords: Diamond, Fancy color, Gemstones.
Iran’s GEMKISH showcases craftsmanship in turquoise, agate
(Editor of Jewelry Outlook, London, United Kingdom)
KISH ISLAND, Iran, November 2018 – Gems and jewelry show GEMKISH was a showcase for Persian turquoise and agate, and highlighted a need for international marketing to raise awareness of the skills of Iranian craftsmanship. GEMKISH, whose fourth edition took place from November 19-22, coincided with the first symposium on Iranian trade in turquoise and agate, which also featured presentations by three international specialists about diamonds and emeralds. A strong turnout from buyers, both in the trade as well as tourists from across Iran and beyond, visited the show to choose superbly crafted gem-set jewelry including diamond jewelry and pieces set with gems, including Persian turquoise and agate. “In terms of gems and jewelry, Iran is perhaps most famous for its turquoise and agate,” said Zohreh Amini, gemologist with HRD-Antwerp-Iran, based in Tehran.
Indian participants at GEMKISH were down this year due to the impact of renewed U.S. sanctions against Iran, organizers said. Some Indian traders chose to visit Jewelry Arabia in Bahrain instead of GEMKISH this year. However, Kish, which benefits from duty-free status, welcomes business opportunities with the Indian and international trade and hopes to deepen ties in the future as the show progresses, organizers said. GEMKISH is also looking to strengthen ties to buyers from Europe, Asia and beyond. There is a strong flow of gems and jewelry trade between India and Iran: Iranians export minerals, such as turquoise and agate, to India; and India exports manufactured and handcrafted jewelry and gems to Iran. India is by far the leading partner in Iran’s gem and jewelry trade, GEMKISH organizers said. GEMKISH displayed a wide selection of jewelry and gemstones, notably pure and matrix turquoise, in blue and green, and a vast range of agate jewelry, as well as diamond jewelry, and jewelry set with cut gems sourced from Jaipur.
Exhibitors included Shamse Mehr Soltan, which presented a variety of gem-set jewelry, including jewelry set with lapis lazuli from Afghanistan, and turquoise and agate jewelry from Iran. “We see GEMKISH as presenting a big opportunity to attract buyers because of the duty-free status of Kish Island,” said Alireza Iravani, managing director of Shamse Mehr Soltan. “Iran is very proud of its turquoise and agate production, and we are hoping to develop business opportunities for the Iranian gems and jewelry sector.” Adel Gold and Jewelry, based in Isfahan, showcased gold and gem-set jewelry at GEMKISH, featuring high standards of craftsmanship.
Young and talented Iranian jewelry designers, many of them women, were out in force at the show, underscoring the skilled craftsmanship in Iran, one of the most populous countries in the Middle East. “Now is the time to consider carefully how best to market internationally the skilled craftsmanship of Iran’s gem and jewelry industry,” said Tehran-based Professor Fariborz Masoudi, a geochemist and mineralogist, who was one of the main organizers of GEMKISH and the symposium. A key challenge for the Iranian gems and jewelry sector is the need for marketing and branding. The Iranian trade understands that it should raise awareness in the wider gems and jewelry world of the skills of Iranian craftspeople and the attraction of its indigenous turquoise and agate gems. Much of the discussion around GEMKISH, coinciding with the invitation of three international specialists to the show, centred around how the Iranian trade can inform buyers around the world about the talented jewelry makers, and rare materials available in Iran. “We are very pleased to have invited the three international speakers who have shown their strong support for the Iranian gems and jewelry trade,” said Vahid Ahadnejad, a gemologist and mineralogist, who was also an organizer of the event at Kish.
GEMKISH, with the advantages of its duty-free zone status, has the potential to be an important conduit for Iranian gemstone and jewelry exports to the rest of the world. That potential is currently complicated by the U.S. sanctions, but there was widespread hope in Kish that the economic situation in Iran would eventually improve, creating new opportunities for the trade.
In the debate about the future of the Iranian gems and jewelry trade, visitors to GEMKISH suggested the following actions:
- Develop the GEMKISH website, in both English and Farsi;
- Consider rebranding GEMKISH, focusing on its status as Iran’s number 1 gems and jewelry show, with a strong social media plan.
- Presenting GEMKISH at other international gems and jewelry trade shows, for example the India International Jewelry Show (IIIJS), staged twice a year in Mumbai;
- Boosting education for members of Iran’s gems and jewelry trade;
- Promoting a future Iranian jewelry design competition, with a financial prize for the winner that gives incentives to talented jewelry designers to enter the contest. Boosting the profiles of leading Iranian jewelry designers via editorial on the internet;
- Developing the brands of GEMKISH and leading Iranian gem and jewelry exporting companies;
- Boosting GEMKISH’s international communications;
- Developing new features of GEMKISH, including fresh content for future symposiums and seminar programs;
- Raising awareness of GEMKISH’s duty-free status;
- Advertising GEMKISH in international trade media;
- Inviting influential international trade media, influencers and bloggers to GEMKISH, subject to budget constraints;
- Boosting the brand value of Persian turquoise, the leading indigenous gemstone export revenue earner of Iran;
One of the talking points at GEMKISH was the extraordinary auction sales results at the Christie’s and Sotheby’s magnificent jewelry auctions held in Geneva on November 13-15. In the sales, the 18.96-carat Pink Legacy achieved a world record price per carat for a pink diamond of $2.6 million per carat at Christie’s, selling for $50 million to U.S.-based jeweler Harry Winston. It was the most valuable pink diamond ever sold by Christie’s. A pearl and diamond pendant once owned by ill-fated French Queen Marie Antoinette, garnered an all-time high price for a pearl of $36 million, many times its $1-2 million estimate, at Sotheby’s. Visitors to GEMKISH spoke about the supreme marketing skills of Sotheby’s and Christie’s in driving demand for such extraordinary jewels, and asked themselves how to maximize the value of Iran’s handcrafted gem-set jewelry and gems. Part of the answer to the question is figuring out how to increase the value of, and appreciation for, Persian turquoise, the most precious gem mined in Iran. Branding of a suitable name for Persian turquoise, and possibly creating a trademark, would be a first step. Boosting ties between the Iranian and Indian gem and jewelry trades would be key, because of India’s importance as a potentially growing export market for Iranian products.
The Iranian jewelry and gems trade, with the guidance of the GEMKISH board, could consider creating a new jewelry and gems organization to unite the domestic sector. A new Iranian jewelry and gems body could approach India’s Gem and Jewelry Export Promotion Council (GJEPC) to enhance cooperation and business ties between the two countries. GEMKISH’s key organizers aim to initiate a dialogue with CIBJO, the World Jewelry Confederation, in order to begin a process to elect and appoint an Iranian delegate to the annual CIBJO Congress. There may be time to appoint an Iranian delegate to CIBJO before its next Congress in Bahrain in late 2019. The CIBJO Congress sets the global guidelines for gems and jewelry trade, including nomenclature. GEMKISH’s key organizers can build relationships with industry groups in other countries, such as the UK’s National Association of Jewelers (NAJ), and international trade fairs, such as VICENZAORO in Italy.
What is the way forward for the Iranian gems and jewelry trade?
Iran is a little known player in the international gems and jewelry community. The country is having to deal with the impact of U.S. economic sanctions. The small-scale, fragmented and largely unbranded jewelry makers of Iran face challenging economic times. The debate at GEMKISH focused on how best to increase the knowledge of gem and jewelry buyers around the world about Iran’s skilled craftsmanship and gemstone heritage. The historic jewels of Iran, safeguarded in the Treasury of National Jewels of Iran in Tehran, are among the world’s most remarkable jewelry collections, and include the fabulous Darya-i-nur diamond, or Sea of Light, the largest pink diamond in the world. India, one of the world’s leading jewelry suppliers, which plays such a major role in international gem and jewelry trade with Iran, can have a major impact in supporting Iran’s future in the sector. India holds the key to helping Iran boost its stature in the international jewelry and gems trade. One idea being considered by GEMKISH organizers was to create a special pavilion for the Indian trade.
Keywords: GEMKISH, Turquoise, Agate.
Challenges in the marketing of lab grown diamonds: future global turnover in lab grown diamonds is set to increase markedly
(Editor of Jewelry Outlook, London, United Kingdom)
Lab grown diamonds need to be clearly identified and segmented from natural diamonds. A technology race is under way between lab groups to be able to identify the smallest lab grown diamonds in parcels of natural melee. CIBJO seeks to boost dialogue with the lab grown diamond manufacturing community, according to sources attending the 2018 CIBJO Congress in Bogota in October. In their marketing, lab grown diamond manufacturers will likely extol the virtues of sustainable diamonds at more accessible prices than natural diamonds. “Diamonds” author, Marijan Dundek (November 20): Marijan Dundek, one of the world’s leading experts in the sale of high-value colored natural diamonds, who formerly worked for Graff, gave a presentation about drivers of value, noting the extraordinary prices achieved at auction for some of the world’s rarest diamonds. A discussion panel focused on how the beauty, rarity and provenance of superb colored diamonds can send prices to all-time highs, as in the case of the Pink Legacy which had once belonged to the Oppenheimer family, who helped De Beers become the world’s leading diamond miner. In the case of the sale of Marie Antoinette’s pearl and diamond pendant sold at Sotheby’s Geneva on November 14, much of its value was attributed to provenance: the fact that Marie Antoinette had held this jewel in her collection in the days prior to her execution by guillotine in Paris in 1793, in large part explained its sale for many times its $1-2 million estimate.
Keyword: Marketing, Lab grown diamonds, Natural diamonds.
New emeralds from Ethiopia compared with Zambia, Brazil, Afghan, and Colombian
(SSEF SGC Primagem - Exceptional Natural Gemstones, Bangkok Metropolitan Area, Thailand)
Colombia has dominated the world supply of the finest quality emeralds for the past four centuries, whereas in modern times, Brazil and Zambia have also become important sources. Combined, Colombia, Brazil and Zambia are responsible for over 80% of world emerald production. Exports of fine emeralds from Colombia to Spain in the 1600's through 1900's often ended up in the spectacular crown jewels of the Mughal and Persian empires and can be enjoyed today at the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, Turkey, and The Iranian National Jewels housed at The Treasury of National Jewels inside the Central Bank of Iran in Tehran. Fine quality emeralds are also mined in Afghanistan, Australia, Austria, Madagascar, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Tanzania, and most recently Ethiopia. Cutting and polishing into faceted, cabochons and beads is dominated by India where over 70% of all emeralds are processed, whereas Colombia processes approximately 20%. Exceptional emeralds are often featured in fine jewelry by such luxury brands as Tiffany & Co., Cartier, Graff, Harry Winston, BVLGARI, Mouawad and Boghossían. In recent years, rare star-like trapiche emeralds predominantly from the famed Muzo mines in Colombia have become quite popular. Cut en-cabochon to emphasise their six arms (or legs), trapiche emeralds are featured more and more in fine jewelry, and have even been winners of design competitions such as the prestigious American Gem Trade Association’s Spectrum Awards. Geological growth conditions result in the vast majority of emeralds cut and polished with eye visible natural fissures. Traditionally, oils, wax or resins have been used to impregnate these features causing them too cosmetically (visually) disappear. This enhancement process is accepted in the trade world-wide as long as it is properly disclosed to buyers. In 2016, exciting news spread through the gem trade of the discovery of exceptional quality emeralds in the Southern Ethiopian Oromia region near the villages of Kenticha and Dermi. Adopting the trade name of “Shakiso Emeralds” after the small town where the rough is frequently traded, the very best is “often compared to the color of fine Colombian emeralds” according to the prestigious Gübelin Gem Lab in Lucern, Switzerland. The Shakiso Emerald brand was officially launched at the 2018 AGTA Tucson gem show by dealer members Mayer & Watt. It was not long before articles on this new fine emerald source appeared in JCK & Rapaport diamond, gem and jewelry trade magazines, and even the New York Times.
Keywords: Emerald, trapiche, jewelry, Shakiso.
Gemological Workshop on Kish Island
Wilma van der Giessen
(GemAcademy, Voorburg, South Holland Province, Netherlands)
During the GemKish symposium 2018 the author had the honor and pleasure to give 4 separate workshops on synthetic, treated and imitation gemstones. A highly important topic as the identification of gemstones is becoming more and more challenging. The participants were given the opportunity to study a rare collection of gemstones with different gemological instruments such as a microscope, spectroscope, 10x loupe and fluorescence.
The following synthetics gemstones could be observed:
A synthetic HPHT grown rough diamond fragment with characteristic nickel inclusions and color zoning with hourglass structure.
Several gemstones grown by the flame fusion technique:
Faceted as well as rough, including ruby, sapphire showing curved growth lines and gas bubbles, and a synthetic corundum with alexandrite effect showing a characteristic absorption line at 475 nm caused by vanadium. A star ruby and a star sapphire with an induced star created by rutile needles.
Gemstones grown by the flux method:
Faceted as well as rough samples included Ramaura synthetic ruby, Chatham and Gilson synthetic ruby, sapphire and emerald. Wispy veils and platinum inclusions were obvious when viewed through the microscope.
Two different diamond treatments included:
A Laser drilled brilliant cut diamond with a laser drill hole and a glass filled brilliant cut diamond showing the typical flash effect accompanied by glass residue and gas bubbles.
Colored gemstones treated by different techniques included:
Titanium diffused synthetic corundum, showing blue color concentrations at the facet junctions. Quench crackled quartz imitating emerald, displaying green paint trapped in cracks. A glass filled ruby from Mozambique, with flash effect of glass and numerous gas bubbles. And an interesting cubic zirconia with pink paint on the pavilion to imitate pink diamond.
Another interesting topic were the assembled stones.
The students had the chance to observe two clever imitations of star ruby and sapphire, which were composed of rose quartz with an engraved star on foil at the bottom and glued on respectively red and blue glass. Several garnet topped doublets in different colors showed a combination of natural inclusions like rutile needles in the garnet and gas bubbles indicating the glass part. Students were also very keen on learning how to handle a loupe and tweezer professionally and comfortably.
Keywords: Synthetic diamond, HPHT, Sapphire, Ruby, CZ.
Turquoise (Piroozeh), its etymology, occurrences and genesis
Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
Pars Geological Research Center (Arianzamin), Tehran, Iran
Most probably, Turquoise is the oldest gemstone mined since ancient times across the world. Several names can refer to this gemstone of which Agaphite, Callais, Kaloslitho, Chalchuite, Coeruleolactite, Piroozeh, Henwoodite, Johnite, Oriental Turquoise, Rashleighite, Orodontolite, Turky stone and Turquois can be mentioned. The term which is used in Persian is “Piroozeh” that means victory. Taking into account that most of the turquoise pieces are not pure turquoise mineral and the name turquoise come originally from the turquoise samples of Neyshabur mines transported to Europe through Turkey or the name of the adjacent ancient city close to these mines (Torshiz), it is here suggested that the term “Piroozeh” can refer to the rock mined from the Turquoise mines as gemstone. The most important occurrences of turquoise include southeastern China, Iran, Sinai Peninsula and USA. Turquoise forms in the weathering environment, via the interaction of meteoric waters with copper, phosphorous, and aluminum-bearing rocks. In many cases, these host rocks are inferred to have supplied the elemental and molecular constituents necessary to form turquoise; copper from copper-bearing minerals (e.g. chalcopyrite), phosphorous from apatite and aluminum from feldspars, clays (especially kaolinite) or other aluminum-rich phases. Turquoise is not limited to be formed from the weathering of igneous rocks. Turquoise deposits on the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt are found in sedimentary rocks, where copper and phosphorous-charged ground waters interacted with aluminum-rich concretions made of alunite and gibbsite. Minerals commonly associated with turquoise include (but are not limited to) quartz, pyrite, limonite, kaolinite, alunite, sericite and jarosite. Pyrite is an iron-sulfide mineral that, when oxidized, acidifies meteoric water and makes it possible to leach copper and phosphorous from the country rock. So, beside the turquoise mineralization it is expected to have the formation of iron oxides that can be used as an exploration factor.
Keywords: Turquoise, Piroozeh, Etymology, Occurrences, Genesis.
Turquoise Grading Index (TGI)
Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Turquoise was among the first gems to be mined. Turquoise range from different shades of blue to shades of green. Some have matrix, others don’t. Even the matrix differ greatly in color and patterned. Most valuable turquoise has deep blue color. That’s named in market “Persian blue”. Iran has been an important source of turquoise for at least 5,000 years. It was initially named by Iranians "Piroozeh" meaning "victory", and later the Arabs called it "firuzeh", which is pronounced in Modern Persian as "fīrūzeh". Other notable localities of Turquoise include: Egypt, USA, China, and Afghanistan. In order to achieve standard evaluation for turquoise in in market can be used TGI method. TGI or Turquoise Grading Index is quantitative and qualitative method for grading of turquoise and based on 9 factors: hardness, color, clarity, matrix pattern, turquoise matrix composition, enhancement, cut, size and origin of Piroozeh. According to the obtained scores of each factor, the final score is calculated and estimated the true value of turquoise.
Keywords: Turquoise, Piroozeh, Grading, TGI.
International Standards and 4th Industrial Revolution-Piroozeh (Turquoise)
Behzad Saeedi Razavi
Construction & Mining Faculty, Standard Research Institute, Karaj- Iran
Piroozeh (Turquoise) is one of the ancient gems that has been extracted from the world for a long time and is based on the user's own taste. This change of taste is based on variety in color, background, hardness, purity, associated minerals and so on. For the sake of progress, we need to promote the traditions, and during this promotion, certainly, issues related to them, such as production, kind of trade and so on, will be affected by this promotion which requires integration in the world. This is precisely the standard and is the same as the uniformity that we need for gemstones.
People are trusted by international standards, and so new technologies in the form of international standards can be fully utilized and standardized. 2019 is named by International Standard Organization (ISO): International Standards and 4th Industrial Revolution. The 4th Industrial Revolution refers to the emerging technologies, which are blurring the traditional boundaries between the physical, digital and biological worlds. This increased connectivity of people and things will impact the way we produce, trade and communicate. International Standards are a powerful way to ensure safety and minimize risk.
What is the relationship between the Piroozeh and the Industrial Revolution?
- Piroozeh is very ancient gemstone.
- Piroozeh production is very professional.
- Innovation for Piroozeh is very low.
- If we enter the industry, it will make a lot of progress for this gemstone.
From the discovery to reaching the Piroozeh to the consumer market, there are several stages that can be transformed from traditional to industrial by some international standards. The 4th Industrial Revolution has begun, but in order to seize its full potential for the betterment of society, international standards are needed. Finally, I think we can help each other to begin a revolution in the gemstones, especially Piroozeh (turquoise) and here's the place to start it if we want.
Keyword: Piroozeh (Turquois), Standard, Revolution, Industrial.
Standard position in the gemstone industry
Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI), Isfahan, Iran
Along with the conversion of most societies to industrial societies, standardization of products has been needed. The standard is the technical specifications or general criteria that are regulated by cooperation, agreement or general approval of all beneficiaries and affiliates. In this regard, one of the industries that have a significant contribution to the trade, industry and entrepreneurship of most countries, including our country, Iran, is the industry of gold and jewelry and precious stones. Therefore, in recent years, most countries have been investing in their standardization. In this regard, the International Technical Committee for Gold and Jewels (ISO TC / 174), which is responsible for planning, developing and monitoring standards in this field (which is the basis for the quality identifying of gemstones in world trade law), was established in 1978 in Switzerland. The corresponding committee of the International Jewish Committee in our country was formed on 28th July 2009 under the name ISIRI /TC 174. Then, it officially became a member of the International Organization of Technology Technical jewelry Committee in December 2009. Currently, 20 countries, including Iran, are members of the committee and are entitled to vote. The corresponding standard committee of our country's gold and jewelry is responsible for the development of standards for jewelry, gemstones and jewelry. In this article, the terms of membership and partnership of the Islamic Republic of Iran in projects and the development of global standards and its presence in international meetings are explained. Moreover, the relevant committee of Iran has proposed the International Standard for Turquoise and other precious stones in 2014, which the technical reasons for Turquoise will be discussed in this article.
Keywords: gemstone industry, Standard, (ISO).